Dungeon Master Assistance

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Category Archives: House Rules

D&D 5E – Spellcasting Underwater

Can I cast spells underwater?

This came up recently in a game I was running. I handled it with a decision at the table. After more thought, this is what I came up with.

First, I don’t allow you to cast a spell that you mumble under your breath. In air, You must say the magic words (the verbal component) in a clear and forceful voice that can be heard from at least 20 feet away.

Here are my house rules regarding speaking and casting spells with a verbal component while you are underwater.

1) After 1+(con bonus) minutes of holding your breath underwater you begin to drown. Each round that you speak or attempt to cast a spell with a verbal component takes 30 seconds from the time you can continue holding your breath. If you are just talking, this can be a simple sentence no more than about 10 words.

2) You are harder to understand when you talk while underwater. There is a 50% chance that you won’t be understood when speaking, and a 50% chance that your spell will fail when uttering the verbal component.

3) Sound travels further underwater, so she verbal component of a spell will be heard at least 40 feet away. The same for normal speech. If it can be understood, anyone further than 40 feet away will have to succeed in a perception check with a DC = the number of feet beyond 40 feet.

4) You can’t whisper or yell underwater.

5) If you are underwater, no one that is not in the water will be able to understand anything that you are saying.

6) If you can breath underwater you can talk and cast spells without restriction.

You may also want to see to my post regarding drowning here.


D&D 5E – Simplified Rules – Version 5

5.0-EZ Version 5

Download your free copy here.

A supplement to fifth edition dungeons and dragons for those who prefer simpler rules or want an easy way to introduce the game to new players.

This version is a major re-write after play-testing the previous version. The changes mainly relate to bringing the rules more in line with those in the Player’s Handbook to make it easier for a new player to transition from this to the full set of rules found there.


D&D 5E – Non-standard weapon/armor materials

Special Weapon Materials

With the exception of Adamantine armor and weapons, and Mithral armor, fifth edition does not (yet) have any official rules for weapons and armor made from other non-standard materials. If your campaign includes primitive lands, you might need rules for stone or bone. Here are some house rules you may want to use.

The metal weapons and armor in the PHB are assumed to be steel. In primitive areas, steel may not be available. In other areas more advanced materials such as Adamantine or Mithral might be available. Some of these materials grant the item the fragile property – a property that can be applied to both weapons and armor.

The Fragile Property

Fragile Weapons
Fragile weapons cannot take the beating that sturdier weapons can. If you roll a natural 1 on an attack roll with a fragile weapon, you must then make a DC(10) Dexterity (Sleight of Hand) save or that weapon is damaged and only does half damage after that. If already damaged, the weapon is destroyed instead.
Fragile Armor
Armor with the fragile property falls apart when hit with heavy blows. If you are wearing fragile armor and are hit with a critical hit, you must make a DC(10) Dexterity (Acrobatics) save or the armor is damaged and the AC bonus it provides is halved. If already damaged, the armor is destroyed instead.


This is one of the hardest substances in existance.
Adamantine armor
Can be any Medium or heavy armor, but not hide. While you’re wearing it, any critical hit against you becomes a normal hit.
Adamantine weapons
Melee weapons and ammunition made of or coated with adamantine are unusually effective when used to break objects. Whenever an adamantine weapon or piece of ammunition hits an object, the hit is a critical hit.
The adamantine version of a suit of armor, or a melee weapon or of ten pieces of ammunition costs 500 gp more than the normal version, whether the weapon or ammunition is made of the metal or coated with it.


Mithral is a light, flexable metal.
Mithral armor
Can be any Medium or Heavy armor, but not hide. A mithral chain shirt or brestplate can be worn under normal cloths. If the armor normally imposes disadvantage on Dexterity (Stealth) checks or has a Strength requirement, the mithral version of the armor doesn’t.
Mithral weapons
An item made from mithral weighs half as much as the same item made from other metals. Mithral is too light to be used for Heavy weapons. If the weapon isn’t Heavy, it becomes Light. If it is already listed as Light it gains the Finesse property. If the weapon is Two-Handed it is now instead Versatile. Mithral ammunition it too light to be effective.
The mithral version of a suit of armor or a melee weapon costs 200 gp more than the normal version.

Cold Iron

This iron, mined deep underground, known for its effectiveness against fey creatures, is forged at a lower temperature to preserve its delicate properties. Items made of cold iron weighs one and one half times as much as the same item made from steel.
Cold Iron armor
Can be any Medium or Heavy armor, but not hide. Medium armor imposes a -1 penalty to the DEX modifier for calculating the Armor Class (AC). Heavy armor requires a Str score 2 points higher than that listed in the PHB. Cold iron armor grants a +2 bonus to armor class against any attacks from fey creatures.
Cold Iron weapons
Items without metal parts cannot be made from cold iron. An arrow could be made of cold iron, but a standard quarterstaff could not. Cold iron weapons lose all Light and Finesse properties.  A cold iron weapon grants a +2 bonus to hit against fey creatures. If the creature wielding it has a strength score of 15 or higher,  and the weapon does bludgeoning damage, a +1 bonus is added to damage rolls.
The cold iron version of a suit of armor or a melee weapon costs twice as much as the normal version.


Steel is the default metal used for weapons and armor.
Steel is iron ore with unwanted impurities removed and other impurities introduced. These impurities strengthen iron, making it far more resilient.


Items made of iron weighs one and one half times as much as the same item made from steel.
Iron armor
Can be any Medium or Heavy armor, but not hide. Medium armor imposes a -1 penalty to the DEX modifier for calculating the Armor Class (AC). Heavy armor requires a Str score 2 points higher than that listed in the PHB.
Iron weapons
Items without metal parts cannot be made from iron. An arrow could be made of iron, but a standard quarterstaff could not. Iron weapons lose all Light and Finesse properties.
Armor and Weapons made from Iron cost the same as those made from steel.


Before the advent of iron and steel, bronze ruled the world. This easily worked metal can be used in place of steel for both weapons and armor. For simplicity’s sake, similar or component metals such as brass, copper, or even tin can use the following rules, even though in reality bronze is both harder and more reliable than those metals.
Bronze Armor
Bronze can be used to create any medium or light armor made entirely of metal or that has metal components. It protects a creature as well as steel armor does, but it has the fragile property. Bronze armor has the same weight as normal steel armor of its type.
Bronze Weapons
Bronze weapons have the same weight and do the same damage as steel weapons of the same type but also have the fragile property.
Armor and Weapons made from bronze cost half as much as those made from steel.


Stone Age weapons almost always utilize stone in some way. From rocks lashed to wooden hafts to create early maces and axes, to flint knives and stone arrowheads, these primitive weapons are still deadly.
Stone Armor
Armor cannot usually be constructed from stone, but advanced, often alchemically enhanced stone armor made by dwarves or other stone-working cultures does exist. They are one third the weight of their base armor, and have the fragile property.
Stone Weapons
Light and one-handed bludgeoning weapons, spears, axes, daggers, and arrowheads can all be made of stone. Weapons made of stone are one third the weight of their base weapons, and have the fragile property.
Alchemically enhanced stone armor cost twice its standard cost. Weapons made from stone cost one quarter as much as those made from steel.


Bone can be used in place of wood and steel in weapons and armor. Other animal-based materials like horn, shell, and ivory also use the rules for bone weapon and armor.
Bone Armor
Studded leather, scale mail, breastplates, and wooden shields can all be constructed using bone. Bone either replaces the metal components of the armor, or in the case of wooden shields, large pieces of bone or shell replace the wood. They are one quarter the weight of their base armor, and have the fragile property. The armor/shield bonus of bone armor is reduced by 1. If the armor normally imposes disadvantage on Dexterity (Stealth) checks or has a Strength requirement, the bone version of the armor doesn’t.
Bone Weapons
Light and one-handed melee weapons, as well as two-handed weapons that deal bludgeoning damage only, can be crafted from bone. Hafted two-handed weapons such as spears can be crafted with bone tips, as can arrowheads. Other two-handed weapons cannot be constructed of bone. Bone weapons have the the fragile property. Bone weapons take a –1 penalty on damage rolls (minimum 1 damage).
Armor and Weapons made from bone cost one tenth as much as those made from steel, but they are not normally available except in those cultures that use them.

Rustic Wood

We are talking here about non-tempered wood that is fashioned by hand with primitive tools into armor or weapons.
Rustic Wood Armor
Studded leather, scale mail, breastplates, and shields can all be constructed using roughly worked wood. Wood replaces the metal components of the armor. They are one quarter the weight of their base armor, and have the fragile property. The armor bonus of rustic wood armor is half that listed in the PHB, except no AC reduction for rustic wood shields. If the armor normally imposes disadvantage on Dexterity (Stealth) checks or has a Strength requirement, the wood version of the armor doesn’t.
Rustic Wooden Weapons
Light and one-handed melee weapons, as well as two-handed weapons that deal bludgeoning damage only, can be crafted from roughly worked wood. Hafted two-handed weapons such as spears can be crafted entirely of wood, as can arrows. Other two-handed weapons cannot be constructed of wood. Rustic Wood weapons have the the fragile property. Rustic Wood weapons take a –2 penalty on damage rolls (minimum 1 point damage).
Rustic Wood Armor and Weapons are not normally available except in those cultures that use them. A PC might make them himself, or barter for them.

D&D 5E – More Simplified Rules

5.0-EZ Supplement

Download your free copy here. This is a supplement to the simplified fifth edition rules that I previously published here.

I just updated this file. I had left out the Ranger page. It is included in this new version.

The 5.0-EZ book contains rules for using the common Races: Human, Dwarf, Elf, and Halfling. This supplement contains rules for the uncommon races: Dragonborn, Gnome, Half-Elf, Half-Orc, and Tiefling.

The 5.0-EZ book contains rules for using the classic classes: Fighter, Cleric, Wizard and Thief. This supplement contains rules for these additional classes: Barbarian, Bard, Druid, Ranger, Monk, Paladin, Sorcerer and Warlock

These additional races and classes are by their nature more complicated to play than those included in 5.0-EZ.


D&D 5E – Using Shields as Weapons (House Rule)

Attacking With A Shield

I have addressed the fifth edition rules for using a shield in a previous post (HERE). But I recently had a player ask if he could use a spiked shield. I couldn’t think of a good reason that he shouldn’t be allowed to do that, but the rules as written don’t specifically address the issue.
Time for a new house rule.
I soon realized that to do this I really needed to re-examine all of the rules for attacking with shields. What I came up with is a redefining of a normal shield – when it is used as a weapon – as well as spiked shields and a couple of other issues.

Normal Shields

Simple weapon: Normal shields can be used as simple light melee weapons.
Damage: 1d4 + STR bonus (bashing).
Proficiency: You are only proficient with normal shields used as weapons if you are proficient with all simple weapons.

Spiked Shields

(This shield is constructed with a sharpened spike at its center.)
Martial weapon: A spiked shield is a light martial melee weapon.
Damage: 1d6 + STR bonus (piercing).
Cost: You can add a spike to a normal shield for an additional cost of 2 gp. (Adding more than one spike does not change the damage.)
Proficiency: You are only proficient with spiked shields used as weapons if you are proficient with all martial weapons.

If you lack proficiency:

They can still be used as an improvised weapons, doing 1d4 + STR bonus damage. The damage type will be bashing for normal shields, or piercing if it is a spiked shield.

Two weapon fighting:

When you take the Attack action and attack with a light melee weapon that you’re holding in one hand, you can use a bonus action to attack with a shield that you’re holding in the other hand, but only if you are proficient with using it as a weapon. You don’t add your ability modifier to the shield attack damage, unless that modifier is negative

Effect on armor class:

Using a shield to make an attack doesn’t deprive you of the +2 AC bonus.

Dual wielder feat:

You do not gain a +1 bonus to AC while you are wielding a shield (spiked or not).

D&D 5E – Laws of Motion

Laws of Motion

I see the D&D universe as a pre-Newtonian world. Very much controlled by something similar to Aristotle’s Laws of Motion. At least, that is the way that the most intelligent thinkers of the time believe that it works. All spells that affect the target’s speed or location, such as fly, levitate, teleport, etc. cancel all current forces acting on the target and replaces them with the effects of the spell.
So first I will present the laws of motion as known by most magic users in the D&D universe.
This is how it might be explained to you by the smartest man in the kingdom. [Please understand that the ideas below may represent a view of the world similar to that held in 300 BC, but was later replaced by Isaac Newton’s much more accurate laws of motion.]

The Celestial Sphere

“Objects in the heavens (the celestial sphere) move in circular motion, without any external force compelling them to do so. Objects on Earth (the terrestrial sphere) move in straight lines unless forced to move in a curve.
First, although most commoners think that the Earth is flat, it is indeed spherical. You know. Round like a ball. It only appears to be flat because it is so large. The Earth is in the center of the universe. It is surrounded by the celestial sphere, where lie the sun, the moons, all of the planets and the stars. All of these celestial bodies circle the Earth. The apparent motions of the fixed stars and planets are accounted for by the fact that they are embedded in rotating spheres made of an aetherial, transparent fifth element (quintessence), like jewels set in orbs. The fixed stars do not change their positions relative to one another because they are on the surface of this single starry sphere.
The stars, Sun, Moon, and planets are all made of fire. But whilst the stars are fastened on a revolving crystal sphere like nails or studs, the Sun, Moon, and planets, and also the Earth, all just ride on air like leaves because of their breadth. And whilst the fixed stars are carried around in a complete circle by the stellar sphere, the Sun, Moon, and planets do not revolve under the Earth between setting and rising again like the stars do, but rather on setting they go laterally around the Earth like a cap turning halfway around the head until they rise again.”

The Terrestrial Sphere

“To the motion of non-living things, such as a stone dropped from the hand, is explained by two principles; Natural Motion and Violent Motion.”

Natural Motion

“The 4 elements [earth, air, fire and water] tend to seek their natural place in the order of things. So earth moves downwards most strongly, water flows downwards too, but not so strongly, since a stone will fall through water. In contrast, air moves up (bubbles in water), and fire goes upwards most strongly of all since it shoots upward through air. Most materials that you see around you are mixtures of elements. For example, wood has both earth and air in it, since it does not sink in water.
Natural motion causes undisturbed inanimate objects to travel in a straight line either toward the center of the Earth or away from it. Left undisturbed, a pure Earth would consist of an inner ball of earth surrounded by a shell of water over which would be a layer of air and above all would be an outer layer of fire.”

Violent Motion

“Things also move because they are pushed. A stone’s natural tendency, if left alone and unsupported, is to fall, but we can lift it, or even throw it through the air. We call such forced motion “violent” motion as opposed to “natural” motion. The term “violent” just means that some external force is applied to it.
Heavier things fall faster, the speed being proportional to the weight. The speed of fall of a given object depends inversely on the density of the medium it is falling through. So, for example, the same body will fall twice as fast through a medium of half the density.
For violent motion, the speed of the moving object is in direct proportion to the applied force. This means that if you stop pushing, the object will soon stop moving.”

How this Effects Magical Spells

So the magic caster thinks that a body in motion only stays in motion as long as the force causing it to move continues to push it. Otherwise, it will eventually slow to a stop. So for teleportation – when the subject of the spell arrives at its new destination all external forces stop acting on it and it arrives at its destination as intended. External forces, in this case, would include what we refer to as inertia.
This also makes answering questions like this much easier:
“What if the PC walks through a teleportation gate and arrives at another location thousands of miles away?” Think of the actual, physical conditions. The Earth is spinning about 24 thousand miles per hour from West to East. Depending on where on Earth the other portal is located, inertia could be a big problem. Not to mention orientation.
Even something a simple as a feather fall ring. “What if the wearer was shot out of a cannon?” At the top of the arc, he would begin to fall. So feather fall kicks in and he begins to fall slowly. If inertia is still in effect he will travel much farther and still hit the ground at the speed that he was shot out of the cannon. This is obviously not the intention of the feather fall spell. If on the other hand, inertia and gravity are no longer pushing on the PC and are replaced by the magical feather fall rules, he floats gently down from the point where he begins to fall.
“If you are flying through space on a sailing ship that has a magical gravity bubble surrounding it, what happens if you fall overboard?” I would say that you fall as if you were on earth until you reached the edge of the gravity bubble and then slowly stop when the force of the magical gravity stops pulling you down.

D&D 5E – Nautical Adventures – Italian

Viaggi, Avventure, Abbordaggi e Combattimenti tra le onde dei sette mari
(Travel, Adventures, Boardings and Fighting between the waves of the Seven Seas)

You can get your free copy of this here: http://homebrewery.naturalcrit.com/share/BJL8XcjyZ

Luke translated my D&D 5E – Nautical Adventures into Italian and created this amazing version. It is an excellent example of what can be done with the homebrewery site. http://homebrewery.naturalcrit.com/


D&D 5E – Simplified Rules


Download your free copy here.

Go here to download a supplement that adds all of the races and classes that are in the Player’s Handbook.

If you sometimes feel that the fifth edition Dungeons and Dragons rules are too complicated, this is for you. I created this set of house rules to simplify character creation and advancement among other things. It also introduces a whole new way to select and track the casting of magic spells.
One thing I tried very hard to do was keep the characters levels and power as close as possible to the Player’s Handbook characters so that if you play using these rules, you can still use published 5th edition adventures, and the monsters will require little or no modifications.

Here is what is on the EZ character sheet.

D&D 5E – The Nature of Magic

What is Magic? How does it work?

I was trying to figure out how (in 4th and 5th edition Dungeons and Dragons) a character could learn all there was to know about a magic item by simply examining it for an hour. This wasn’t possible in earlier editions. You could only learn about an item by trial and error or by some magical means. It is only now coming up because I never played 4th edition, and this is the first time I have been the DM running a 5th edition game.

After a lot of research (Google is my friend) I finely came to the realization that the nature of magic has changed. To make logical sense out of it all (assuming you can apply logic to the rules of magic in a fantasy game), this is what I came up with.

Nothing below is official. It simply represents my ideas and house rules.

The Source of Magic

Behind reality as the player-characters know it, there is a sort of internal “skeleton”, over which reality exists like skin atop muscle and bone. This “skeleton” can best be envisioned as an unseen essence that pervades all parts of the multiverse, directly linking everything to every other thing. This is the source of all magic. When you cast a spell, you actually create a specific alteration in the local essence, which then causes the spell effect you wanted in the ‘real’ world. Some call this essence “Mana”. In the Forgotten Realms it is called the “Weave”. If the Weave in an area is damaged or destroyed, magic is unreliable or impossible – that’s what creates Wild Magic and Dead Magic zones in the Realms.

All the physical laws of the universe are simply reflections of the true, background laws that govern this universal essence. The average person can only perceive normal reality, but some creatures are born with the ability to sense the universal essence.

All magic-using beings share an innate ability to manipulate the essence. Likewise, almost all those “gifted” with these abilities must receive training in arcane (wizardly) or divine (clerical) magic in order to learn how to manipulate the essence with finesse.

Bards learn that words and music are not just vibrations of air, but vocalizations with power all their own. They learn to untangle and reshape the essence in harmony with their wishes and music.

Clerics and Paladins are conduits for Divine magic, the power of the gods. Divine casting is done by channeling the essence provided by their deities and forming spells out of that.

Druids and Rangers revere nature above all, and can draw essence from the land, gaining their spells and other magical powers either from the essence that flows through nature itself or from a nature deity.

Monks make careful study of the essence that flows through living bodies. Most monastic traditions call this ki.

Sorcerers learn to harness and channel their own inborn magical abilities. They gather the essence to them from force of will.

Warlocks receive their magical abilities from a pact they made with an otherworldly being. This is similar to the way gods channel essence through divine casters.

Wizards create elaborate mental structures within the mazes of their own minds, traps which funnel magical essence like a roof collects rainwater for a barrel, stored and ready to be used over the course of a day.

Detecting Magic

This magical substructure to the universe, this unseen essence, can be manipulated by users of magic. It can sometimes be concentrated and placed inside a creature or object. Examples would include casting a spell on a creature to make it resistant to fire, or creating a ring of protection. These magic infused creatures or items emit a type of magical radiation. A creature with the ability to sense the universal essence can detect this magical glow, but it is invisible to all others without some magical way to detect it.

The “Detect Magic” spell:

Magical radiation is similar to light in that it is dimmer the farther you are from it. It can pass through most objects, but is blocked from most forms of detection by 1 foot of stone, 1 inch of common metal, a thin sheet of lead, or 3 feet of wood or dirt. For the magic radiation to be strong enough to be detected by the “detect magic” spell, you must be within 30 feet of the magic creature or item. If you sense magic in this way, you sense the presence of magic, but can’t determine in which direction, or how far away the magic item is. Anytime during the duration of the “detect magic” spell, you can take an action to see if there are any specific items or creatures within sight that you can identify as magical. You will see a faint aura around any visible creature or object in the area that bears magic. If you don’t see an aura around anything, then the magic that you sense must be out of sight. It could be one or more items or creatures that are invisible or hidden. For instance, they could be behind a door or in a box or under a secret panel in the floor.  If you do not see it, you do not see the aura. This also means you cannot use this to locate invisible creatures or objects. Any aura detected can only be seen by the spellcaster. The color of the aura corresponds to the object’s school of magic. If the item has no particular school then the aura has no color. The brightness of the aura indicates the relative strength of the magic.

Unless the magic item is invisible, you can see it if it is within range but behind a transparent barrier, such as glass. You also perceive its magical aura. This includes potions that are in glass bottles. If the potion is in a container that is not see-through you will not see the aura unless you remove the cap and look directly at the potion.

Identifying Magic

If you were to touch a creature that possesses magic, you would not typically feel the magic. But if you were to hold a magic item for a few seconds (a round), you would feel the magical radiation generated by the item effecting your body and/or your mind in some way. The sensation will differ depending on the magic contained within the item. If you continue to hold the item and concentrate on it for a short rest, “At the end of the rest, the character learns the item’s properties, as well as how to use them.”

“Potions are an exception; a little taste is enough to tell the taster what the potion does.” You can’t hold a potion in your hand. The bottle isn’t magical, just the liquid it contains. You could stick your finger into it, and leave it there for an hour, but a drop on your tongue is much faster. A taste is not enough to receive the effects of the potion. If it is poison, a taste is not enough to do harm to the taster. When tasting it, the magic of the potion enters your body and instantly reveals its nature.

Magic items want you to know their properties! The magic is alive! Or, rather, it contains a life force. All life has magic flowing through it to some degree, and all magic has some degree of life flowing through it. This explains why some powerful magical items possess sentience. The item’s creator forced so much magical essence into the item that it became sentient. This also explains why magical essence tends to be attracted to living creatures (and sometimes to dead creatures). And why magic can create or destroy life.

The Identify Spell

This spell makes you more receptive to the magical essence of the item. To identify the magic in an object with this spell, you must remain in physical contact with it for at least 1 minute. “If it is a magic item or some other magic-imbued object, you learn its properties and how to use them” (That much is the same as you can get from examination alone. But with the spell you also learn) “, whether it requires attunement to use, and how many charges it has, if any. You learn whether any spells are affecting the item and what they are. If the item was created by a spell, you learn which spell created it.”

To use this spell to identify a potion still requires one minute, but you must come into physical contact with the potion, not just the bottle it is in. A drop on your tongue or on any spot on your exposed flesh is enough.

The identify spell won’t trigger a curse, but it also doesn’t tell you if an item is cursed. There is no easy way to know if an item is cursed except by trial and error. Even the legend lore spell may only hint that it may be cursed. The curse on an item may cause you to misidentify it.

D&D 5E – Falling Times & Distance

How fast do you fall from heights?

The PHB says you get 1d6 points damage from a fall of 10ft + 1d6 additional damage for each 10 feet if fall after that, to a maximum of 20d6. (See my post on falling damage.) But if you are falling from a  great height, you may have a few rounds to do things during the fall. So the question is, how long does it take me to hit the ground? The DM usually knows how far you will fall. Any fall of less than 500 ft will take less than one round. You can use these tables to determine how long it takes to fall greater distances.

In Stable Free Fall Position (lying belly-to-the-earth)

Rounds Total Distance
1 500 ft
2 1,500 ft
3 2,500 ft
4 3,500 ft
5 4,500 ft
6 5,500 ft (A little more than a mile)

each round thereafter you fall another 1,000 ft.

-or- five rounds for each additional mile


Uncontrolled fall or if you are attempting to go faster by taking a more aerodynamic, diving position.

Rounds Total Distance
1 500 ft
2 2,500 ft
3 4,000 ft
4 5,500 ft (A little more than a mile)

each round thereafter you fall another 1,500  ft.

-or- four rounds for each additional mile



You can’t glide if you are uncontrolled, or attempting to fall faster. You also can’t glide if you fall less than 500 feet. But if you fall more than 500 feet, and you are in Stable Free Fall Position your maximum a glide ratio is 1:1 (or 1:2 if wearing a wingsuit) which means that you could glide a maximum of one foot for each foot falling. (Or a maximum of two feet for each foot falling if wearing a wingsuit.)